History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are crucial for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to several-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a crucial part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System/390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM’s System/360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called “Bus architecture”. The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The “channels” are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. and thus are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

How Computers Evolved – History and Generation of Computers

Evolution of computers has been drastically and dramatic. Computers have been in the existence in the early 1950s, but people were not able to use them. When you mention the word computer most people only think of the Desktop Computer, but in reality computer start with our calculator.

Therefore a computer can be defined as an electronic device that input, process and output information. Lets take in the case of a calculator, when adding figures you are example 1 + 1 = 2, now you will be input data which is 1 + 1, this data is going to be processed through addition process, to give us 2. Now 2 is the process information which is the output.

The first computers to be invented were very big, slow and time consuming with limited capabilities. Computers history and has gone through various stage as they evolve starting with the first computers, before first generation computers we had the ABACUS computers which were limited by their capabilities

The first generation were developed in the early 1940s with their architect based on massive electronic value. They were vacuum tube dependent and without this they would not operation, from first generation computers came in the second generation computers which were better than first generation computers in performing electronic calculation but still were slow, an example of this second generation was the ABM 7000 series .

As the computer kept on evolving into generations people being more knowledge about them and the invention kept on being better, due to this the third computer generation was realized, this computers generations were powerful than the first and second generation computers, and use integrated circuit normally known as IC. An example of the third generation computers IBM was 360 Series.

The third generation computers led to the fourth generation in computer history, with this generation, electronic function were getting better, efficient and more enjoy with relatively less errors compared to the previous computer. And this are the computers used in our day to day activities. They are also using Integrated Circuit IC for their daily operation. The fourth generation computer will lead to the fifth generation computer which will be more powerful and ability to take instruction from people. This is known as artificial intelligence, in some instances robots are being used to do certain work which were done by human beings.

Fear of Computers – How to Stop Being Afraid of Computers

Are you suffering from fear of computers? Fear of computers, also known as cyberphobia, is a common problem for many individuals. There are many different sources for cyberphobia, and there are solutions for those who are afraid of computers.

For many people, fear of computers is really a fear of the unknown. For those who did not grow up with computers, their advancement in society may lead to anxiety. Also, people who are not comfortable with computers and their use, or who do not understand how computers work, may have an irrational fear of technology.

The best way to overcome cyberphobia if your fear is based on the unknown is simply to take a computing class for beginners. Another great option is to read books on computers for novice users. Following these tips will help you see there is nothing to fear.

For those who worry about their privacy, computers present an especially frightening way for strangers to intrude into their lives. Computers store lots of vital information that most of us would prefer to keep private, and many people are afraid of having their information or identity stolen through computers.

If your fear of computers springs from an invasion of privacy, a great way to deal with this problem is to install a firewall on your computer. By installing this type of program, you’re able to keep strangers from accessing your information. You can also password-protect any of your important files and folders.

Many people are afraid of breaking the computer or getting a virus. Computers do store important information, and some people have cyberphobia when they consider the impact of losing their computer’s stored information. Therefore, they feel it is just better to avoid computer use at all instead of taking the risk.

If your fear of computers stems from this worry, there are two solutions. First, install high-quality antivirus software for protection. Then, back up the files on your computer to another drive or disk on a regular basis. By taking these precautions, you’ll safeguard yourself from losing your information.

Computer Components and the Importance of the Case

For those who prefer to design and build their own computers from scratch, the internal features that comprise the system’s operating power are but one of the considerations that go into the design and planning process. The casing is another of the important computer components that cannot be overlooked. Not only does it cover your CPU, motherboard, and other essential elements – it also provides protection and aesthetics for what would otherwise be an open collection of sensitive parts.

There are a wide variety of cases available to house your computer components, most of which are based on the industry’s ATX standard for size and layout for housing motherboards. Since all of your computer components will be housed within the casing, it can easily be considered the backbone of your computer system. When choosing a case, there are some important considerations you need to make.

Those considerations include the number of expansion bays, and ease of access. Expansion bays are the slots in the front of the casing through which you can access various removable drives like a DVD or DC-Rom drive. If you plan on upgrading your system throughout its life, you will want to ensure that you have an excess of expansion bays to accommodate future drive additions. The ease with which you can access the internal components is an important factor, as it will determine how easily you can perform anticipated upgrades, as well as perform regular cleaning to remove dust and dirt.

How your casing is laid out will indicate how efficient your computer’s fans are at keeping the internal computer components cool – thus reducing or eliminating the cause of most computer freezes and crashes. In addition, casings with quality filters over the fan area can help to eliminate dust and other particles that can contribute to excessive heat.

As you can see, the casing for your computer is one of the most critical computer components you can buy. Taking the time to choose the right case can go a long way toward ensuring that your custom designed computer has a long and efficient life.

Everything You Need to Know About Remote Computer Support

Nowadays, people rely on their computers to do almost everything. They connect with others, keep up on the latest news, search the Web for information, work and even get their education online. So when something goes wrong with this precious machine, it needs to be fixed immediately or a loss of valuable time and money could be at stake.

It used to be that a computer repair tech would have to travel to your home or office to repair your computer if something went wrong that you couldn’t fix. However, now there’s remote computer support, which allows computer experts to access your computer from a different location. If you’re unfamiliar with the wonders of remote computer support, you may be insecure about a stranger accessing your computer from afar. The only way to ease your mind about this new technology is to learn everything you need to know about it.

First of all, what is remote access? If someone has remote access, it means they can access files and data from one computer from another machine from a different location. All that is needed is an Internet connection and the connection and software that is needed to hook up their computer and network to the remote service.

Remote access can be used in many ways. Firstly, an individual may use it to be able to access their own computer from any other machine. Companies may use remote access to allow their employees to access their systems while they are out of town on business. Also if a business has a remote access system, the business’s IT company will be able to troubleshoot the problem immediately. Many businesses hire IT companies that aren’t in the local area. If there is a problem that needs attention immediately, the IT techs may not be able to get there fast enough and the company may end up losing money. Even if the owner hires a local IT company that is close by, the remote access will still allow the company to begin working on the problem the minute they are notified. This comes in handy when the company revolves around working on computers and all work comes to a halt if the system fails.

There may be times when an IT tech needs to come on site to fix a problem, but if remote computer support and on-site support can have the exact same results, there no reason for a business to resist remote access. That way, the company is getting a faster response to the technical issue while also avoiding larger charges from an IT company that had to rush to the scene. Using remote computer support will keep the overall cost of technical support down. The company will usually just have to pay a monthly fee to use the service, which is most likely cheaper than costly emergency IT support services.

The only question left is security. Is remote computer support safe? We are all threatened by computer hackers and have heard the horror stories about Internet identity theft. Luckily, remote support is safe, but you still should have an exceptional security system to ensure maximum protection, especially when using online hosted solutions. IT remote computer professionals must connect to the customer’s computer using a user-ID and password. This means only the IT techs can connect, not just anyone. In many cases, the complete control of the system is in the customer’s hands. They can choose to end the computer repair session any time. Computer experts use automatic diagnostics plans to fix the problem first, then they can complete repair or maintenance work for the hardware or software if needed. Also remote computer repair techs will take their customers through the process of what they are doing to keep the customer informed and put their mind at ease.

Remote access services are increasing as computers and online services become even more part of our every day lives. It’s especially useful for businesses to use remote access to make sure their computer issues are addressed immediately. This makes sure productivity doesn’t suffer and the business doesn’t lose money. For individuals at home, you’ll no longer have to wait for days for your computer to come back from the repair shop. With how many individuals work from home, or are engaging in online education, it seems silly to not look into remote computer support to solve all your computer problems quickly and efficiently so you can get back to your productive life.

Classification of Computers

Computers are available in different shapes, sizes and weights, due to these different shapes and sizes they perform different sorts of jobs from one another.

They can also be classified in different ways. All the computers are designed by the qualified computer architectures that design these machines as their requirements.

A computer that is used in a home differs in size and shape from the computer being used in a hospital. Computers act as a server in large buildings, while the computer also differs in size and shape performing its job as a weather forecaster.

A student carrying a laptop with him to his college is different in shape and size from all the computers mentioned above.

Here we are going to introduce different classifications of computers one by one. We will discuss what are in classifications and what job they perform.

Super computer

The biggest in size, the most expensive in price than any other is classified and known as super computer. It can process trillions of instructions in seconds. This computer is not used as a PC in a home neither by a student in a college.

Governments specially use this type of computer for their different calculations and heavy jobs. Different industries also use this huge computer for designing their products.

In most of the Hollywood’s movies it is used for animation purposes. This kind of computer is also helpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide.


Another giant in computers after the super computer is Mainframe, which can also process millions of instruction per second and capable of accessing billions of data.

This computer is commonly used in big hospitals, air line reservations companies, and many other huge companies prefer mainframe because of its capability of retrieving data on a huge basis.

This is normally to expensive and out of reach from a salary-based person who wants a computer for his home.

This kind of computer can cost up to thousands of dollars.


This computer is next in he line but less offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These are the computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges, etc.

Personal computers

Almost all the computer users are familiar with the personal computers. They normally know what the personal computer is and what are its functions.

This is the computer mostly preferred by the home users. These computers are lesser in cost than the computers given above and also, small in size; they are also called PCs in short for Personal computers.

This computer is small in size and you can easily arrange it to fit in your single bedroom with its all accommodation. Today this is thought to be the most popular computer in all.

Notebook computers

Having a small size and low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. A student can take it with him/her to his/her school in his/her bag with his/her book.

This is easy to carry around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments and other necessary tasks.

The approach of this computer is also the same as the Personal computer. It can store the same amount of data and having a memory of the same size as that of a personal computer. One can say that it is the replacement of personal desktop computer.

This is one of the unique articles posted weekly on http://www.computer-and-printer-reviews.com.

Computer Animation: How It's Changed Everything

The computer has basically revolutionized how we as a society go about our everyday lives. We check our email, go on Facebook, read the news and search for videos on YouTube. In animation school, it became apparent that the old fashioned way of animating was becoming a thing of the past. Not necessarily so: some animators still go the old fashioned route, but computer animation and computer generated effects have pretty much changed the way animation and films are made.

Today's animation schools focus on both the old and the new. While some still have a loving adoration of hand-drawn cel animation, computers have streamlined the process. Say you're watching a film like The Wizard of Oz, which was made ​​with actors in costumes and matte paintings to showcase the backgrounds of the Emerald City; today it would all be done by computer, where the Cowardly Lion and the Scarecrow would be digitally enhanced characters instead of actors in costume. An actor would have to voice the character, but in some cases there'd be no need for an actor to actually be on set, as it could be animated instead.

When the first film version of The Lord of the Rings was released in 1978, it featured a combination of animated cells and live action rotoscoping (animating over live action), which gave the film a dark and mysterious appearance. However the film was limited in what it could do and it only covered half of the actual story. With the recent Peter Jackson trilogy, many of the issues that the first film was unable to achieve had been remedied with computer technology, where live action was mixed with computer generated characters. The most remarkable element of these films was the use of actor Andy Serkis who played the notorious Gollum, through a process called 'motion capture' where an actor is covered with reflective markers, filmed against a green screen and then a computer generated character is animated over the motion capture image.

Animation school taught me how the motion capture process would revolutionize the way animation and films would be made. The impossible is now possible. The first Star Wars films were made ​​the old fashioned way, by using models of spaceships and matte paintings. In the first trilogy (Star Wars, Empire Strikes Back) alien characters were either animatronic puppets or Claymation. By the time the second batch of films were released in the late 1990s, all the alien characters and spaceships were computer generated. This is part of the reason why the series' creator, George Lucas, has gone back and tweaked his original films, to give them more ambience and add more graphical flourishes that were impossible when he made the first film in the 1970s. However this was controversial in some camps, as many die-hard fans felt the original films should have been left alone without the new-fangled embellishments.

However, most animation schools give you the leeway to find your niche. It's good to experiment with both, which gives a chance to decide which works for you. If you love computers, then computer animation may be a good fit. The if you love but the way old Appearances animation looks, there is still an audience for it and the if you're in animation school , you Might want to give a whirl That style.

The Importance of Upgrading Your Computer System

If you want to have a computer of your own, then you must understand one thing about them. You see, computers aren’t things you must dispose of after a number of years. It is something you can build on, improve and upgrade. A computer can last you a very long time. If there is one thing you need to know about computers it is that the only thing it needs for longevity is an upgrade. You shouldn’t be afraid to upgrade your system. Doubt is something that’s common with inexperienced computer users. But if you want to have a better system, one that lasts you a very long time, you have to open up to computer system upgrades. Here are a few upgrade suggestions depending on your needs.

If you start to notice a slowing of your systems, then you might need an internal hardware upgrade. A simpler approach would be to reformat your computer, but sometimes, that just won’t do. When it comes to computer speed, the key components are the memory and processor. Memory is very easy to upgrade. All you have to do is buys new memory chips and put them in the empty memory slots in your computer. The processor is a bit harder to change, though. First, you have to make sure the new processor you want is compatible with your current motherboard. If it isn’t then you can either look for another processor that’s compliant, or replace your motherboard with something that’s compatible with it.

Another upgrade you might want to do is shift to a dual monitor system. A dual monitor system is great for people who need to monitor many tasks at one time. This is also great for enhancing the gaming experience. If you want to shift to a dual monitor system, just invest on two LCD or LED monitors and ensure your video card can handle the dual monitor system. You can also invest on a dual monitor stand which saves you a whole lot of space even with two monitors on your desktop.

Upgrades are necessary to lengthen your computer’s life, and once you understand how you can easily upgrade your computer, you will enjoy a faster and more responsive PC without spending too much money on purchasing a new system.

The Pros and Cons of Repairing an Old Computer

When your computer starts to break down, it can be difficult to decide between fixing your computer or getting a new one. Considerations such as time and budget restrictions have to be taken into account. In order to find the option that works best for you, here are some of the pros and cons of repairing or purchasing a computer.

Pros of Repairing a Computer

If you have been using your computer for a long time, it might have years' worth of information and documents in it. Transferring all of that information into a new computer can be time consuming and frustrating. The good thing about repairing a device is that all of your pre-existing files stay in your machine. You do not have to extract any information or invest in external hard drives.

Another pro associated with repairing is the familiarity of the machine. Different makes and models vary slightly even if they perform the same functions. You might be used to your keyboard or you like how easy it is to navigate your computer's internal software. When you repair your device, you keep your existing preferences.

Many technology experts also take matters into their own hands by taking older machines and creating super computers. They purchase old devices at a fraction of the cost and outfit them with extra storage, faster processors, and better graphics. If you have the money, it might be a good idea to take your existing device and custom make it into a super computer.

Cons of Repairing a Computer

The costs associated with repairs can often be more than the price of a new computer. Older computers might have internal components that are no longer manufactured. It is similar to finding the parts of a classic car. These parts will cost more because they are now rare and hard to find. For some people, it might be worthwhile to simply invest in a new machine.

New machines also have processing systems that are up-to-date and current. This means that they run faster, they process information quicker, and they can facilitate new software easier. Integrating new programs into an old machine can be difficult since older technology might not synch with new programs.

Whether or not you decide to repair your computer or purchase a new one is really based on your personal preferences. If you have a smaller budget, you can either do basic repairs or you can invest in a cheaper machine. If you can afford to pay more, you have the choice between creating a custom-made device or investing in an advanced new computer. Both options are viable and can help you with both business and with life.

Are We Too Dependent on Computers?

A computer has been one of mankind’s greatest invention among other inventions ever since the foundation of science began. Its development was a result of years and years of long experiments spanning a hundred or so years conducted not just by one man, but many. Development of computers as it is today is a continuous process and it will ever be. Computers, however simple they may seem now to the computer literate, has a complex set of system underneath. It takes multiple disciplines in both computer studies and electronics to fully understand them. After all, computer in itself is subdivided into branches as is science itself.

While other technological inventions may have had already been developed prior to the foundation of science, “technology” is not yet a proper term for such. The word technology, after all, is always correlated with science and both science and technology are mutually inclusive to one another, strictly speaking in terminologies. Computers of today, however advanced they may seem, have had its origins in humble beginnings.

How did computer began?

Abacus, the earliest form of calculator, has been recorded to be in use since the early civilizations estimated to be around 1000 and 500 B.C., only to be adopted elsewhere in the world. The idea on how the algorithm of a computer does its arithmetic was based on this, in logic. Soon after, for as early as 1820’s, in the personification of Charles Babbage, dubbed to be one of the fathers of modern computer, developed ideas on how computers should do its math, initially known as the difference engine, it developed later after to become what is known as the analytical engine. While Charles Babbage, due to funding issues, didn’t get to see his ideas into fruition during his lifetime, it is his youngest son, Henry Babbage, who did so in 1910 based on his. However, this primitive form of computer is not as advanced as how we see on computers of today.

The idea of the need to do the computation on our behalf as man, hence the word ‘computer,’ came out of the need to handle complex problems and perform complex computations that is both difficult and takes longer time for man to handle. Especially true during the times of the industrialization era and great world war where the need for such arose. How a computer behaves is what’s in a library of a computer.

The development of computer grew by a lot since laying the foundation by Charles Babbage as was inspired by existing “technologies” of its time. From names of people of the past significant in the foundation of computers such as Ada Lovelace, Konrad Zuse, Alan Turing, John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry, Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper, so on and so forth, up to the present computer giant names such as William Gates, Steve Wozniak, and Steve Jobs, among others, computers of today are bigger in functions than they are their sizes and have found a spot in every people’s lives in both commercial and personal usage.

How do people use computers in their daily lives?

Modern day computers laid out the foundation on how we perform duties of today. It is a lot more efficient and makes the work done in shorter times. From a simple household leisure such is playing games or running multimedia programs, to doing office works, to a more difficult developing programs, up to a more complex computations such is done in NASA, computers made all this possible — all in a single box. What once takes a long time to finish in groups as in seen in companies without computers, can now be finished in shorter times with those.

Computers taking over the world

Also one of the most popular usage of computers is the internet. What once was the trend for telephones and telegrams, has become internet’s – and it is worldwide. Literally, computers taking over the world.

Although initially used for military purposes concurrent to the development of the computer, the internet grew up to become commercialized as it is used today. The internet, in conjunction to and other than the previous means, made communication around the world possible which also gave rise to communication tools such as the social media. To date, billions of people use computers with the internet every day.

Are we really too dependent on computers?

We may be are dependent on computers in relation to the internet given the information age we are in, since the computer age began. But such dependency was initially for a good intention – that is, to keep up with the demands of progress through the efficiency and rate the work demanded is done with computers as both our aid and tools. Let’s face it, there are complex works out there that can only be efficiently done if and only if we have computers. However, one should also ask whether such dependency is good for us. What if, by some chance, this technology called computers and the things it can do were taken from us? What then? Just like a bad addiction, computer dependency outside of our needs and moderation can be harmful for us, its users. An ideal tool for tyrants. While it may sound like it is out of context, it is not. In fact, we are as capable workers as our ancestors were without computers. Although obviously at a cost of the efficiency and ease we’ve known on how we do things with computers. These are not statements about abandoning computers as we know and use them, we’re just waking up with the idea of who we are without computers and who are ancestors were without those. No, we are not worthless without computers – we are not just as capable as someone who does and we alone are not capable as what a complex computer does as a computing machine. But do not be fooled, we are still the ones who made computers as they are today. In a way, we as a mankind is still superior to machines.

Now to the question, “are we too dependent on computers?” — the answer is, we are, at both misuse and discretion. Ultimately, how we use computer, as a technology, in our everyday lives weighs down on how we use it and for what purpose. Is it for the common good? Is it beneficial? In fact, these are questions also answerable by our own selves, as its users.